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2015年职称英语理工类新增文章及翻译.doc

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2015年职称英语理工类新增文章及翻译.doc

2015年职称英语理工类新增文章及翻译第四部分阅读理解106第九篇ANESSENTIALSCIENTIFICPROCESS122第二十二篇REALWORLDROBOTS147第五部分补全短文207第五篇ARECORDBREAKINGROVER212第九篇LIGHTENINGSTRIKES218第十三篇AFFECTIONATEANDROIDS224第九篇ANESSENTIALSCIENTIFICPROCESSALLLIFEONTHEEARTHDEPENDSUPONGREENPLANTSUSINGSUNLIGHT,THEPLANTSPRODUCETHEIROWNFOODTHENANIMALSFEEDUPONTHEPLANTSTHEYTAKEINTHENUTRIENTSTHEPLANTSHAVEMADEANDSTOREDBUTTHAT’SNOTALLSUNLIGHTALSOHELPSAPLANTPRODUCEOXYGENSOMEOFTHEOXYGENISUSEDBYTHEPLANT,BUTAPLANTUSUALLYPRODUCESMOREOXYGENTHANITUSESTHEEXCESSOXYGENISNECESSARYFORANIMALSANDOTHERORGANISMSTOLIVETHEPROCESSOFCHANGINGLIGHTINTOFOODANDOXYGENISCALLEDPHOTOSYNTHESISBESIDESLIGHTENERGYFROMTHESUN,PLANTSALSOUSEWATERANDCARBONDIOXIDETHEWATERGETSTOTHEPLANTTHROUGHITSROOTSTHECARBONDIOXIDEENTERSTHELEAVESTHROUGHTINYOPENINGSCALLEDSTOMATATHECARBONDIOXIDETRAVELSTOCHLOROPLASTS,SPECIALCELLSINTHEBODIESOFGREENPLANTSTHISISWHEREPHOTOSYNTHESISTAKESPLACECHLOROPLASTSCONTAINTHECHLOROPHYLLSTHATGIVEPLANTSTHEIRGREENCOLORTHECHLOROPHYLLSARETHEMOLECULESTHATTRAPLIGHTENERGYTHETRAPPEDLIGHTENERGYCHANGESWATERANDCARBONDIOXIDETOPRODUCEOXYGENANDASIMPLESUGARCALLEDGLUCOSECARBONDIOXIDEANDOXYGENMOVEINTOANDOUTOFTHESTOMATAWATERVAPORALSOMOVESOUTOFTHESTOMATAMORETHAN90PERCENTOFWATERAPLANTTAKESINTHROUGHITSROOTSESCAPESTHROUGHTHESTOMATADURINGTHEDAYTIME,THESTOMATAOFMOSTPLANTSAREOPENTHISALLOWSCARBONDIOXIDETOENTERTHELEAVESFORPHOTOSYNTHESISASNIGHTFALLS,CARBONDIOXIDEISNOTNEEDEDTHESTOMATAOFMOSTPLANTSCLOSEWATERLOSSSTOPSIFPHOTOSYNTHESISCEASED,THEREWOULDBELITTLEFOODOROTHERORGANICMATTERONTHEEARTHMOSTORGANISMSWOULDDISAPPEARTHEEARTH’SATMOSPHEREWOULDNOLONGERCONTAINOXYGENPHOTOSYNTHESISISESSENTIALFORLIFEONOURPLANET词汇NUTRIENTN营养物ORGANISMN生物体,有机体CARBONDIOXIDEN二氧化碳CHLOROPLASTN叶绿体MOLECULEN分子VAPORN水蒸气OXYGENN氧气PHOTOSYNTHESISN光合作用CHLOROPHYLLN叶绿素GLUCOSEN葡萄糖CEASEV停止注释1.THENANIMALSFEEDUPONTHEPLANTS动物以植物为食。练习1.INTHEFIRSTPARAGRAPH,THEWORD“EXCESS”MEANSAHEAVYBEXTRACGREENDLIQUID2.WHICHOFTHEFOLLOWINGDOESNOTMOVETHROUGHAPLANT’SSTOMATAACARBONDIOXIDEBWATERVAPORCOXYGENDFOOD3.INTHETITLE,THETERMESSENTIALSCIENTIFICPROCESSREFERSTOAPHOTOSYNTHESISBTHEATIONOFGLUCOSECGLOBALWARMINGDWATERGETTINGTOTHEROOTSOFPLANTS4.THISPASSAGEISPRIMARILYDEVELOPEDBYAEXPLAININGAPROCESSBTELLINGASTORYCCOMPARINGANDCONTRASTINGDCONVINCINGTHEREADEROFPLANTS’IMPORTANCE5.ANOTHERGOODTITLEFORTHISPASSAGEWOULDBEAOXYGENANDCARBONDIOXIDEBPLANTSANDTHEIRROOTSCHOWPHOTOSYNTHESISWORKSDWHYOUREARTHNEEDSWATER答案与题解1.B前文讲到,植物产生的氧气一部分被植物自身消耗了,但植物消耗的氧气量远小于它们产生的氧气,因此可以推测这句话的意思应该是剩余的氧气对于动物以及其他生物体的生存是至关重要的。EXCESS在句中的意思是“超额的”,与EXTRA“额外的”意思相近。2.D从第三段的第一、二句得知,二氧化碳、氧气和水蒸气都能从气孔中通过,唯一一个没有提到的是FOOD“养分、食物”,因此该题选D项。3.A文章通篇都在讲PHOTOSYNTHESIS,即光合作頌钠作用和重要性,文章结尾又重申了PHOTOSYNTHESISISESSENTIALFORLIFEONOURPLANET,因此选A项。B项是光合作用的一个部分,C、D项则毫不相干。4.A文章先是介绍了进行光合作用所需的原料和组织,又介绍了光合作用的过程,因此整个逻辑应该是解释过程,而不是讲故事或比较对比。D项是“向读者说明植物的重要性”,这确实是文章的一个目的,但不是文章的组织方式。5.C文章的主题是光合作用的基本原理,因此选项C。A、B项在文中有提及,但不是主旨,D项与本文无关。第二十二篇REALWORLDROBOTSWHENYOUTHINKOFAROBOT,DOYOUENVISIONASHINY,METALLICDEVICEHAVINGTHESAMEGENERALSHAPEASAHUMANBEING,PERINGHUMANLIKEFUNCTIONS,ANDRESPONDINGTOYOURQUESTIONSINAMONOTONEVOICEACCENTUATEDBYHIGHPITCHEDTONESANDBEEPSTHISISTHEWAYMANYOFUSIMAGINEAROBOT,BUTINTHEREALWORLD,AROBOTISNOTHUMANOIDATALLINSTEADAROBOTOFTENISAVOICELESS,BOXSHAPEDMACHINETHATEFFICIENTLYCARRIESOUTREPETITIVEORDANGEROUSFUNCTIONSUSUALLYPEREDBYHUMANSTODAY’SROBOTISMORETHANANAUTOMATICMACHINETHATPERSONETASKAGAINANDAGAINAMODERNROBOTISPROGRAMMEDWITHVARYINGDEGREESOFARTIFICIALINTELLIGENCETHATIS,AROBOTCONTAINSACOMPUTERPROGRAMTHATTELLSITHOWTOPERTASKSASSOCIATEDWITHHUMANINTELLIGENCE,SUCHASREASONING,DRAWINGCONCLUSIONS,ANDLEARNINGFROMPASTEXPERIENCEAROBOTDOESNOTPOSSESSAHUMANSHAPEFORTHESIMPLEREASONTHATATWOLEGGEDROBOTHASGREATDIFFICULTYREMAININGBALANCEDAROBOTDOES,HOWEVER,MOVEFROMPLACETOPLACEONWHEELSANDAXLESTHATROLLANDROTATEAROBOTEVENHASLIMBSTHATSWIVELANDMOVEINCOMBINATIONWITHJOINTSANDMOTORSTOFINDITSWAYINITSSURROUNDINGS1,AROBOTUTILIZESVARIOUSBUILTINSENSORSANTENNAEATTACHEDTOTHEROBOT’SBASEDETECTANYTHINGTHEYBUMPINTOIFTHEROBOTSTARTSTOTEETERASITMOVESONANINCLINE,AGYROSCOPEORAPENDULUMINSIDEITSENSESTHEVERTICALDIFFERENTIALTODETERMINEITSDISTANCEFROMANOBJECTANDHOWQUICKLYITWILLREACHTHEOBJECT,THEROBOTBOUNCESBEAMSOFLASERLIGHTANDULTRASONICSOUNDWAVESOFFOBSTRUCTIONSINITSPATH2THESEANDOTHERSENSORSCONSTANTLYFEEDINATIONTOTHECOMPUTER,WHICHTHENANALYZESTHEINATIONANDCORRECTSORADJUSTSTHEROBOT’SACTIONSASSCIENCEANDTECHNOLOGYADVANCE,THEROBOTTOOWILLPROGRESSINITSFUNCTIONSANDUSEOFARTIFICIALINTELLIGENCEPROGRAMS词汇ENVISIONV想象,预想DEVICEN装置ACCENTUATEV强调,重读ARTIFICIALINTELLIGENCEN人工智能LIMBN臂ANTENNAEN天线INCLINEV倾斜PENDULUMN钟摆ULTRASONICADJ超声的METALLICADJ金属的MONOTONEN单调的HUMANOIDADJ像人的AXLEN轮轴ROTATEV旋转SWIVELN旋转TEETERV摇晃GYROSCOPEN陀螺仪,回转仪VERTICALN直立的注释1.TOFINDITSWAYINITSSURROUNDINGS为了在周围找到路2.THEROBOTBOUNCESBEAMSOFLASERLIGHTANDULTRASONICSOUNDWAVESOFFOBSTRUCTIONSINITSPATH机器人发射激光束和超声波,反射到障碍物上(以此来探知路径)。练习1.ANOTHERGOODTITLEFORTHISPASSAGEWOULDBEAROBOTSTAKINGTHEPLACEOFHUMANSBARTIFICIALINTELLIGENCEPROGRAMSCTODAY’SROBOTSANDHOWTHEYFUNCTIONDMODERNDAYSENSORS2.ARTIFICIALINTELLIGENCEISATHEUNNATURALWAYINWHICHROBOTSMOVEBAVOICELESS,BOXSHAPEDMACHINETHATPERSREPETITIVETASKSCSENSORSSUCHASANTENNAEANDAGYROSCOPEDACOMPUTERPROGRAMTHATIMITATESHUMANINTELLECTUALPROCESSES3.THELASTPARAGRAPHSUGGESTSTHATFUTUREROBOTSWILLBEAMOREHUMANLIKEINBEHAVIORANDACTIONSBMORELIKEAUTOMATICMACHINESCBETTERABLETOMOVEONINCLINESDBETTEREQUIPPEDWITHLASERLIGHTSENSORS4.THEWRITERBEGINSTHEPASSAGEBYCOMPARINGATHESHAPEOFAHUMANBEINGWITHABOXBAMODEMROBOTWITHAFICTIONALROBOTCANIMAGINARYMACHINEWITHAHUMANDACOMPUTERPROGRAMWITHARTIFICIALINTELLIGENCE5.THEWORDHUMANOIDMEANSALACKINGHUMANCHARACTERISTICSBANYTHINGHAVINGTHEAPPEARANCEOFAHUMANOIDCBEINGVOIDORVACANTDHAVINGAHUMANORCHARACTERISTICS答案与题解1.C从文中得知,文章主要介绍了机器人和它们的运行方式,因此选择C选项。2.DARTIFICIAL是“人工”的意思,INTELLIGENCE是“智能”的意思。另外从文中得知,机器人使用ARTIFICIALINTELLIGENCE能够进行与人类类似的推理分析等活动,因此可知它是一种类似人类智能的计算机程序。3.A最后一段讲机器人的发展方向是更加智能,能够自己判断并修正行为,而不仅仅是完成重复性的工作。4.B文章开头的时候作者让读者描述他们脑海中的机器人概念,并随后介绍了实际的机器人是怎样的,因此选择B选项。5.D从HUMANOID的词根HUMAN可看出这个词是形容与人类有关的特征。另外根据文章对这个词的描述可以得出这个词是表示和人类类似的特征,不管是外形上,还是行为方式上。第五篇ARECORDBREAKINGROVERNASA’SMARSROVEROPPORTUNITYHASBOLDLYGONEWHERENOROVERHASGONEBEFOREATLEASTINTERMSOFDISTANCE____1____ONJULY27,AFTERYEARSOFMOVINGABOUTONMARTIANGROUND,THEGOLFCARTSIZEDOPPORTUNITYHADDRIVENMORETHAN24MILES,BEATINGTHEPREVIOUSRECORDHOLDERASOVIETROVERSENTTOTHEMOONIN1973“THISISSOREMARKABLECONSIDERINGOPPORTUNITYWASINTENDEDTODRIVEABOUT1KILOMETERANDWASNEVERDESIGNEDFORDISTANCE,”SAYSJOHNCALLAS,THEMARSEXPLORATIONROVERPROJECTMANAGER____2____“BUTWHATISREALLYIMPORTANTLYISNOTHOWMANYMILESTHEROVERHASRACKEDUP,BUTHOWMUCHEXPLORATIONANDDISCOVERYWEHAVEACCOMPLISHEDOVERTHATDISTANCE”OPPORTUNITYTHESOLARPOWEREDOPPORTUNITYANDITSTWINROVER,SPIRIT,LANDEDONMARS10YEARSAGOONAMISSIONEXPECTEDTOLAST3MONTHS____3____SPIRITSTOPPEDCOMMUNICATINGWITHEARTHINMARCH2010,AFEWMONTHSAFTERITGOTSTUCKINASANDPITBUTOPPORTUNITYHASCONTINUEDTOCOLLECTANDANALYZEMARTIANSOILANDROCKSDURINGITSMISSION,OPPORTUNITYHASCAPTURED,ANDSENTBACKTOEARTH,SOME187,000PANORAMICANDMICROSCOPICIMAGESOFMARSWITHITSCAMERAS____4____MARATHONROVERTHEROVERDOESN’TSEEMTOBEREADYTOSTOPJUSTYETIFOPPORTUNITYCANCONTINUEON,ITWILLREACHANOTHERMAJORINVESTIGATIONSITEWHENITSODOMETERHITS262MILES____5____RESEARCHERSBELIEVETHATCLAYMINERALSEXPOSEDNEARMARATHONVALLEYCOULDHOLDCLUESTOMARS’SANCIENTENVIRONMENT1OPPORTUNITY’SCONTINUINGTRAVELSWILLALSOHELPRESEARCHERSASTHEYPLANFORANEVENTUALHUMANMISSIONTOTHEREDPLANET词汇MARSROVERN火星车PANORAMICADJ全景的ODOMETERN里程计RACKUPV积累MICROSCOPICADJ微观的注释1.COULDHOLDCLUESTOMARS’SANCIENTENVIRONMENT含有与火星早期环境有关的线索。练习AITHASALSOPROVIDEDSCIENTISTSWITHDATAONTHEPLANET’SATMOSPHERE,SOIL,ROCKS,ANDTERRAINBHEWORKSATNASA’SJETPROPULSIONLABORATORYINPASADENA,CALIFORNIACSCIENTISTSCALLTHISSITEMARATHONVALLEY,BECAUSEWHENTHEROVERREACHESTHEAREA,ITWILLHAVETRAVELEDTHESAMEDISTANCEASTHELENGTHOFAMARATHONSINCEITSARRIVALONMARSDOPPORTUNITYHASBEENWORKINGONMARSSINCEJANUARY2004ETHEOBJECTIVEOFTHEROVERSWASTOHELPSCIENTISTSLEARNMOREABOUTTHEPLANETANDTOSEARCHFORSIGNSOFLIFE,SUCHASTHEPOSSIBLEPRESENCEOFWATERFSINCEARRIVINGONTHEREDPLANETIN2004,OPPORTUNITYHASTRAVELED2501MILES,MORETHANANYOTHERWHEELEDVEHICLEHASONANOTHERWORLD答案与题解1.F前文讲“机遇号”在距离上比之前的任何漫游车行进的距离都长,因此接下来应该讨论关于行进距离的问题。2.B前文引入了一个新人物JOHNCALLAS,而后文是他说的一些话,因此这里应该填写的内容是对这个人的进一步介绍。3.E前文讲了同时被送入太空的两台漫游车“机遇号”和“勇气号”,因此下文应该对它们的情况进行介绍,而关于发射目的的介绍在这里是合适的。4.A前文讲到“机遇号”给地面传回了许多照片,而选项A中讲到它还给地面传回了许多其他信息,在这里是一致的。5.C前文讲漫游车在行进到262英里的时候会到达一个地点,而后文提到了马拉松谷这个地方,因此这里应该是关于这个地点的介绍。第九篇LIGHTENINGSTRIKESTHREEYEARSAGOABOLTOFLIGHTNINGALLBUTDESTROYEDLYNMILLER’SHOUSEINABERDEENWITHHERTWOCHILDRENINSIDE“THEREWASAHUGERAINSTORM,”SHESAYS,RECALLINGTHETERRIFYINGEXPERIENCE“MYBROTHERANDIWEREOUTSIDEDESPERATELYWORKINGTOSTOPFLOODWATERFROMCOMINGINTHEHOUSESUDDENLYIWASTHROWNTOTHEGROUNDBYANENORMOUSBANG____1____THEDOORWASBLOCKEDBYRUBBLE,BUTWEFORCEDOURWAYINANDFOUNDTHECHILDREN,THANKFULLYUNHARMEDLATERIWASTOLDTOBESTRUCKBYLIGHTNINGISACHANCEINAMILLION”INFACT,IT’SCALCULATEDATONECHANCEIN600,000EVENSO,DRMARKKEYSOFAERTECHNOLOGY,ANORGANISATIONTHATMONITORSTHEEFFECTSOFLIGHTNING,THINKSYOUSHOULDBESENSIBLE“IWOULDN’TGOOUTINASTORMBUTTHENI’MQUITEACAREFULPERSON”HEADVISESANYONEWHOISUNLUCKYENOUGHTOBECAUGHTINASTORMTOGETDOWNONTHEGROUNDANDCURLUPINTOABALL,MAKINGYOURSELFASSMALLASPOSSIBLELIGHTNINGISONEOFNATURE’SMOSTAWESOMEDISPLAYSOFSHEERPOWER____2____250YEARSAGO,BENJAMINFRANKLIN,THEAMERICANSCIENTISTANDSTATESMAN,PROVEDTHATLIGHTNINGISAOFELECTRICITY,BUTSCIENTISTSSTILLLACKACOMPLETEUNDERSTANDINGOFHOWITWORKS____3____POSITIVEELECTRICALCHARGESSTREAMINGUPWARDSFROMTREESORCHURCHSPIRESMAYGLOWANDMAKEABUZZINGNOISE,ANDPEOPLE’SHAIRCANSTANDONENDANDIFYOUFEARLIGHTNING,YOU’LLBEGLADTOKNOWTHATACOMPANYINAMERICAHASMANUFACTUREDAHANDHELDLIGHTNINGDETECTORWHICHCANDETECTITUPTO70KMSAWAY,SOUNDAWARNINGTONEANDMONITORTHESTORM’SAPPROACHNANCYWILDERWASPLAYINGGOLFATACLUBINSURREYWHENSHEWASHITBYABOLTOFLIGHTNINGMRSWILDER’SHEARTSTOPPEDBEATING,BUTSHEWASRESUSCITATEDAND,AFTERAFEWDAYSINHOSPITAL,WHERESHEWASTREATEDFORBUMSTOHERHEAD,HANDSANDFEET,SHEWASPRONOUNCEDFITAGAINSINCETHATTIME,SHEHASBEENASTRICTLYFAIRWEATHERGOLFER1____4____THEBESTPLACETOBEISINSIDEACARTHELARGESTNUMBEROFPEOPLETOBESTRUCKBYLIGHTNINGATONETIMEWASINSEPTEMBER1995WHEN17PLAYERSONAFOOTBALLPITCHWEREHITSIMULTANEOUSLYTHEMOSTEXTRAORDINARYASPECTOFTHESTRIKEWASTHEFACTTHAT11OFTHEVICTIMSSEVENADULTSANDFOURCHILDRENHADBURNPATTERNSOFTINYHOLESAT3CENTIMETREINTERVALSONEACHTOEANDAROUNDTHESOLESOFTHEIRFEETHAROLDDEAL,ARETIREDELECTRICIANFROMSOUTHCAROLINA,USA,WASSTRUCKBYLIGHTNING26YEARSAGOHEWASAPPARENTLYUNHURT,BUTITLATEREMERGEDTHATTHESTRIKEHADDAMAGEDTHEPARTOFTHEBRAINWHICHCONTROLSTHESENSATIONOFTEMPERATURE____5____ANIMALSAREVICTIMSOFLIGHTNINGTOO2.HUNDREDSOFCOWSANDSHEEPAREKILLEDEVERYYEAR,LARGELYBECAUSETHEYGOUNDERTREESINEASTANGLIAIN1918,504SHEEPWEREKILLEDINSTANTANEOUSLYBYTHESAMEBOLTOFLIGHTNINGTHATHITTHEGROUNDANDTRAVELLEDTHROUGHTHEENTIREFLOCKLIGHTNINGISALSORESPONSIBLEFORSTARTINGMORETHAN10,000FORESTFIRESEACHYEARWORLDWIDE词汇BOLTN(闪电)道SHEERADJ绝对的RESUSCITATEV使复苏FLOCKN群RUBBLEN碎石SPIREN尖顶,尖塔INSTANTANEOUSLYADV即刻,突如其来地注释1.SHEHASBEENASTRICTLYFAIRWEATHERGOLFER她变成了一个只在晴朗天气才打高尔夫的人。2.ANIMALSAREVICTIMSOFLIGHTNINGTOO动物也会受到雷击的伤害。练习ANOWONDERTHEANCIENTGREEKSTHOUGHTITWASZEUS,FATHEROFTHEGODS,THROWINGTHUNDERBOLTSAROUNDINANGERBINFACT,AGOLFCOURSEISONEOFTHEMOSTDANGEROUSPLACESTOBEDURINGATHUNDERSTORMCLIGHTNINGHASLONGBEENHAILEDASONEOFTHEMOSTIMPRESSIVEDISPLAYSOFNATURE’SPOWERDWHENIPICKEDMYSELFUP,THEROOFANDTHEENTIREUPPERSTOREYOFTHEHOUSEHADBEENDEMOLISHEDEOCCASIONALLYTHEREAREWARNINGSIGNSFSINCETHENTHEFREEZINGSOUTHCAROLINAWINTERSHAVEN’TBOTHEREDHAROLD,SINCEHEISCOMPLETELYUNABLETOFEELTHECOLD答案与题解1.D前文讲到“我”被爆炸击中,因此后文要讲被击昏然后醒来之后的事,D项符合。2.A前文讲闪电是大自然绝对力量最可怕的展现方式之一,而宙斯在古希腊是力量的化身,古希腊人认为雷电产生的原因是宙斯发怒并投掷闪电。3.E后文讲到闪电来临之前的一些征兆,还讲到有一种产品可以预告闪电。此处要填的是该段的主题句,即闪电到来之前会有一些征兆。4.B前面讲到在高尔夫球场上被雷击的一个事例,后文讲闪电来临之时最安全的地方是汽车里,因此要填的句子应该是讲在高尔夫球场不安全。5.F前文讲HAROLD因为雷击丧失了感受温度的能力,F选项中关于他再也不怕冬天的寒冷的描述符合要求。第十三篇AFFECTIONATEANDROIDSCOMPUTERSARENOWPOWERFULENOUGHTOALLOWTHEAGEOFHUMANOIDROBOTSTODAWN1ANDITWON’TBELONGBEFOREWEWILLSEEREALISTICCYBERCOMPANIONS,COMPLETEWITHSKIN,DEXTERITY,ANDINTELLIGENCETHEYWILLBEPROGRAMMEDTOTENDTOYOUREVERYNEEDWILLWEEVERWANTTOMARRYROBOTSARTIFICIALINTELLIGENCERESEARCHERDAVIDLEVYHASPUBLISHEDABOOKCLAIMINGHUMANROBOTRELATIONSHIPSWILLBECOMEPOPULARINTHENEXTFEWDECADES____1____WILLHUMANSREALLYBEABLETODEEPEMOTIONALATTACHMENTSTOMACHINESITWILL,INFACT,BERELATIVELYEASYTOTHESESTRONGATTACHMENTSBECAUSETHEHUMANMINDLOVESTOANTHROPOMORPHIZETOGIVEHUMANATTRIBUTESTOOTHERCREATURESEVENOBJECTSFOREXAMPLE,RESEARCHERSINSANDIEGORECENTLYPUTASMALLHUMANOIDROBOTINWITHATODDLERPLAYGROUPFORSEVERALMONTHS____2____THECHILDRENENDEDUPTREATINGITASAFELLOWTODDLERWHENITLAYDOWNBECAUSEITSBATTERIESWEREFLAT,THEKIDSEVENCOVEREDITWITHABLANKETINAFEWDECADES,WHENHUMANOIDROBOTSWITHPLASTICSKINLOOKANDFEELVERYREAL,WILLPEOPLEWANTTORELATIONSHIPSWITHTHEMWHATIFTHEBOTSCOULDHOLDACONVERSATIONANDBEPROGRAMMEDTOBETHEPERFECTCOMPANIONSSOULMATES,EVEN____3____ANDLIKETHOSETODDLERSINTHEEXPERIMENT,THEYWILLBEVERYACCEPTINGOFTHEMTHENEXTQUESTION,THEN,ISWHETHERTHEREISANYTHINGWRONGWITHHAVINGANEMOTIONALRELATIONSHIPWITHAMACHINEEVENTODAYTHEREAREPEOPLEWHODEEPATTACHMENTSTOTHEIRPETSANDUSETHEMASSUBSTITUTESFORFRIENDSOREVENCHILDRENFEWCONSIDERTHATUNETHICAL____4____FORTHOSEWHOALWAYSSEEMTOENDUPMARRYINGTHEWRONGMANORWOMAN,AROBOTICMRORMSRIGHTCOULDBEMIGHTYTEMPTINGASTHEFATHEROFARTIFICIALINTELLIGENCE,MARVINMINSKY,PUTITWHENASKEDABOUTTHEETHICSOFLONELYOLDERPEOPLEINGCLOSERELATIONSHIPSWITHROBOTS“IFAROBOTHADALLTHEVIRTUESOFAPERSONANDWASSMARTERANDMOREUNDERSTANDING,WHYWOULDTHEELDERLYBOTHERTALKINGTOOTHERGRUMPYOLDPEOPLE”AROBOTCOULDBEPROGRAMMEDTOBEASDUMBORSMART,ASINDEPENDENTORSUBSERVIENT,ASANOWNERDESIREDANDTHAT’STHEBIGDISADVANTAGEHAVINGTHEPERFECTROBOTPARTNERWILLDAMAGETHEABILITYTOEQUALLYDEEPHUMANHUMANRELATIONSHIPSPEOPLEWILLALWAYSSEEMIMPERFECTINCOMPARISONWHENYOU’REBEHAVINGBADLY,AGOODFRIENDWILLTELLYOU____5____PEOPLEINRELATIONSHIPSHAVETOLEARNTOADAPTTOEACHOTHERTOENJOYTHEIRCOMMONINTERESTSANDTODEALWITHTHEIRDIFFERENCESITMAKESUSRICHER,STRONGER,ANDWISERAROBOTCOMPANIONWILLBEPERFECTATTHESTARTHOWEVER,THEREWILLBENOTHINGTOMOVETHERELATIONSHIPTOGROWTOGREATERHEIGHTS词汇AFFECTIONATEADJ深情的;DEXTERITYN灵巧,敏捷;ANTHROPOMORPHIZEV赋于人性,人格化;GRUMPYADJ脾气暴躁的;CYBERADJ计算机的;TENDV照料;BOTN机器人;SUBSERVIENTADJ屈从的,奉承的;注释1.COMPUTERSARENOWPOWERFULENOUGHTOALLOWTHEAGEOFHUMANOIDROBOTSTODAWN计算机技术已经足够成熟,能够支持人形机器人的诞生和普及,进入人形机器人的时代。练习AIT’SEASIERTOHAVEAROBOTCOMPANIONINSTEADOFAHUMANFRIENDBBUTASOPHISTICATEDROBOTWILLPROBABLYBEEVENMOREATTRACTIVECANDIFYOUWANTTOGOAHEADANDTIETHEKNOTWITHYOURSPECIALELECTRONICFRIEND,LEVYSAIDTHATSUCHMARRIAGESWILLBESOCIALLYACCEPTABLEBYAROUND2050DHOWEVER,FEWOWNERSWILLPROGRAMTHEIRROBOTSTOPOINTOUTTHEIRFLAWSEMAYBEYOURGENERATIONCOULDRESIST,BUTEVENTUALLYTHEREWILLBEAGENERATIONOFPEOPLEWHOGROWUPWITHHUMANOIDROBOTSASANORMALPARTOFLIFEFTHEBOTKNEWEACHCHILDBECAUSEITWASPROGRAMMEDWITHFACEANDVOICERECOGNITION,ANDITGIGGLEDWHENTICKLED答案与题解1.C前文讲到DAVID在书中认为人与机器人的关系在几十年后将变得普遍,因此接下来应该继续讲这种普遍性是怎样的。2.F前文讲在圣地亚哥的一个实验,研究人员将机器人放在儿童游乐园里,要填的句子应该是介绍这个机器人。3.E前文提了几个问题,是关于我们对人与机器人关系的看法,而后文讲“他们”会乐于接受,因此要填的句子应该是两类人的对比。E项讲我们这一代人可能会反对,但下一代人就不一定了,符合意思。4.B前文讲有人和宠物发展深厚关系,后面讲的是与机器人发展深厚关系的吸引人之处,因此这里应该讲机器人做伴侣的好处。5.D前文讲好朋友会在你犯错的时候指出来,这里应该是表示对比机器人不会这么做。

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