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基于STM32单片机的无人机飞行控制系统设计.doc

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基于STM32单片机的无人机飞行控制系统设计.doc

南京航空航天大学硕士学位论文I摘要本文从工程应用出发,将航模固定翼飞机作为研究平台,在总结国内外微小型无人机飞行控制系统设计的基础上,提出了低成本飞行控制系统设计方案。首先,提出飞行控制系统总体方案,对硬件系统进行了详细设计。无人机硬件系统总体分为两个部分机载飞控系统和地面测控系统,其中机载飞控系统以STM32微控制器为核心,集成了数据采集系统、GPS模块、遥控解码模块、舵机驱动模块、数传电台和电源模块;地面测控系统包括测控计算机、数传电台、地面站软件、发射机等。其次,对无人机捷联导航算法进行了研究。捷联导航算法用于无人机姿态、速度、位置等信息的滤波解算,是解决无人机飞行状态准确测量的关键技术之一。本文设计了基于误差四元数的姿态卡尔曼滤波算法;同时考虑在大机动情况下,刚体加速度的影响,采用组合滤波的方法,提高姿态解算的精度,并进行了仿真验证;通过引入GPS的速度和位置量测信息,分别设计了速度、位置卡尔曼滤波器。然后,建立了无人机的飞行动力学模型。基于该模型采用PID控制方法对无人机纵向、横侧向控制回路控制律进行设计;同时对无人机的自主飞行进行研究,给出了直线自主飞行和圆周自主飞行制导参数的计算方法,并设计了相应的控制律;之后进行了仿真,验证了所设计的控制律。最后,展开无人机的试验研究,验证了飞行控制系统硬件与捷联导航算法的可靠性和可行性。关键字无人机,捷联导航,四元数,卡尔曼滤波器,飞行控制AbstractTheremote-controlfixedwingplaneischosenastheresearchplat,andthelow-costflightcontrolsystemisdesignedbasedontheexistingUAVsystem.Firstly,theschemeofflightcontrolsystemisconducted,andthedetailhardwareisdeveloped.TheUAVhardwaresystemincludeflightcontrolsystemandgroundcontrolstation.TheflightcontrolsystemismadeupofSTM32MCU,sensors,GPSmodule,remotecontrolsignaldecodemodule,servocontrolmodule,RFmoduleandpowersupplymodule.Thegroundcontrolstationismadeupofcomputer,RFmodule,groundcontrolstationsoftwareandcommandbox.Secondly,strapdownnavigationalgorithmisresearched.ItsthekeytechnologytoanUAVsystem.TheerrorquaternionbasedattitudeKalmanfilterisdevelopedinthispaper.Consideringinfluenceofrigidacceleration,thecombinedfilterisdesignedtoimprovetheprecisionofestimation.Thesimulationtestshowsgoodperanceofthisnavigationalgorithm.ThevelocityandpositionKalmanfilterisdesignedbyusingofGPSsignal.Thirdly,theclassicalPIDcontrolisusedtodesigncontrollaw,andthesimulationtestiscarriedout.Furthermore,theautonomousflightcontrollawisresearched,andcalculationofnavigationparameterisdesignedinbothstraightlineflightpathandcurvelineflightpathstates.Finally,theexperimentiscarriedouttoprovethepracticabilityandreliabilityoftheflightcontrolsystemandnavigationalgorithm.KeywordsUAV,strapdownnavigation,quaternion,kalmanfilter,flightcontrol南京航空航天大学硕士学位论文III目录第一章绪论.....................................................................11.1课题研究背景及意义......................................................11.2国内外研究现状......................................................................................................................11.2.1无人机研究...................................................................................................................11.2.2飞行控制系统...............................................................................................................31.3本文研究内容及方法...............................................................................................................5第二章飞行控制系统方案设计...........................................................................................................72.1引言.........................................................................................................................................72.2飞行控制系统设计要求..........................................................................................................72.3飞行控制系统试验平台..........................................................................................................82.4飞行控制系统总体方案设计..................................................................................................82.4.1机载飞控系统...............................................................................................................92.4.2地面测控系统.............................................................................................................102.5飞行控制系统硬件方案........................................................................................................112.5.1嵌入式飞控计算机.....................................................................................................112.5.2传感器数据采集.........................................................................................................122.5.3GPS模块.....................................................................................................................152.5.4遥控解码模块.............................................................................................................162.5.5舵机驱动子系统.........................................................................................................162.5.6数传电台.....................................................................................................................172.5.7电源模块.....................................................................................................................172.6飞行控制系统软件设计........................................................................................................172.6.1飞行控制系统软件设计需求.....................................................................................172.6.2飞行控制系统软件流程.............................................................................................18第三章基于单片机的捷联导航算法研究.........................................................................................203.1引言........................................................................................................................................203.2坐标系定义及变换.................................................................................................................203.3捷联姿态矩阵更新算法........................................................................................................213.3.1四元数法.....................................................................................................................223.3.2四元数微分方程的龙格-库塔法求解.......................................................................233.3.3四元数微分方程的等效旋转矢量法求解.................................................................233.4导航滤波算法........................................................................................................................253.4.1姿态估计算法..............................................................................................................253.4.2速度估计算法..............................................................................................................303.4.3位置估计算法..............................................................................................................31第四章无人机控制律设计.................................................................................................................334.1引言.......................................................................................................................................334.2无人机数学模型....................................................................................................................334.3PID控制方法.........................................................................................................................344.4纵向控制律设计....................................................................................................................354.4.1俯仰角保持/控制回路.................................................................................................354.4.2高度保持/控制回路.....................................................................................................364.5横侧向控制律设计................................................................................................................384.5.1横滚角保持/控制回路.................................................................................................384.5.2偏航角保持/控制回路.................................................................................................394.6协调转弯控制........................................................................................................................404.7自主飞行控制律设计............................................................................................................434.7.1直线自主飞行控制律设计..........................................................................................434.7.2圆周自主飞行控制律设计..........................................................................................454.7.3数值仿真......................................................................................................................47第五章试验验证................................................................................................................................495.1引言........................................................................................................................................495.2试验系统组成.........................................................................................................................495.3试验内容及结果.....................................................................................................................49第六章总结与展望.............................................................................................................................526.1本文主要贡献和特点.............................................................................................................526.2进一步的工作和展望.............................................................................................................52参考文献..............................................................................................................................................54致谢......................................................................................................................................................57在学期间的研究成果及发表的学术论文...........................................................................................58南京航空航天大学硕士学位论文V图标清单图1.1“云雀”无人机.......................................................................................................................2图1.2“渡鸦”无人机........................................................................................................................2图1.3“扫描鹰”无人机.....................................................................................................................2图1.4ASN-206无人机......................................................................................................................3图1.5AP50飞行控制系统................................................................................................................4图1.6MP2028飞行控制系统............................................................................................................4图1.7iFLY40飞行控制系统.............................................................................................................5图2.1金星40级油动固定翼.............................................................................................................8图2.2飞行控制系统总体结构图........................................................................................................9图2.3机载飞控系统实物图................................................................................................................9图2.4主控电路板原理图..................................................................................................................10图2.5地面站软件人机界面.............................................................................................................11图2.6传感器数据采集系统硬件结构图..........................................................................................13图2.7角速率陀螺信号调理电路......................................................................................................14图2.8ADXL202加速度计功能结构图...............................................................................................14图2.9磁强计模块.............................................................................................................................15图2.10GPS模块.................................................................................................................................15图2.11GPS模块电路原理图..............................................................................................................16图2.12遥控解码模块.........................................................................................................................16图2.13主程序流程图.........................................................................................................................18图2.1420ms定时器中断程序流程图................................................................................................19图3.1机体坐标系与导航坐标系的关系...........................................................................................20图3.2姿态估计原理图.......................................................................................................................25图3.3姿态估计仿真结构图...............................................................................................................28图3.4无刚体加速度时横滚角仿真图..............................................................................................29图3.5无刚体加速度时俯仰角仿真图..............................................................................................29图3.6无刚体加速度时加速度模值..................................................................................................29图3.7有刚体加速度时横滚角仿真图..............................................................................................29图3.8有刚体加速度时俯仰角仿真图..............................................................................................29图3.9有刚体加速度时加速度模值..................................................................................................30图4.1俯仰角保持/控制结构图..........................................................................................................35图4.2俯仰角响应..............................................................................................................................36图4.3高度保持/控制结构图.............................................................................................................37图4.4高度响应..................................................................................................................................37图4.5滚转角保持/控制结构图..........................................................................................................38图4.6横滚角响应..............................................................................................................................39图4.7偏航角保持/控制结构图..........................................................................................................39图4.8偏航角响应..............................................................................................................................40图4.9无人机转弯受力图...................................................................................................................40图4.10协调转弯控制结构图.............................................................................................................42图4.11协调转弯偏航角响应.............................................................................................................42图4.12协调转弯横滚角响应.............................................................................................................42图4.13协调转弯高度响应.................................................................................................................42图4.14协调转弯侧偏速度响应.........................................................................................................42图4.15样例航迹任务图.....................................................................................................................43图4.16直线自主飞行原理图.................................

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