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《学前儿童卫生与保健》形考作业1-4参考答案小抄.docx

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《学前儿童卫生与保健》形考作业1-4参考答案小抄.docx

peech,isonXXXapoliticalaccount,wemustputlearningimplemenfurtherclarifythetransationaldevelopment,XIJinpingstressedthatXXXhasitsadvantages,alsohavetheirownboards,keytofocusonweaknesses,shortswaggergrams,yangchangbuduan,integratedeffectofpolicymeasurestowardsthetargetsolidforward.Thisimportantstatementforustodoagoodjobprovidingadialecticalthinkingandthescientific,fullyembodiesthedialecticalunityofsubjectiveandobjectivelaw.Wemustspeaktothespiritforguidance,andfurtherdeepenunderstanding,targetedtolongYangwell,Hawksheltersmakegoodshort,releasedinfulldevelopmentpotential.一...PotentialandthebigfiveshortBoard,thatis,ecologicalenvironment,resources,water,economicdevelopmentadvantageadvantage,advantageaspolicyoverlap,culturalenrichment,andindustrialboards,institutionalweakness,shortpeopleshort,shortoffundsandtalent.Fromtheperspectiveofecologicalenvironment,ourregionasanimportantguaranteeofnationalecologicalsafety,highforestcover,water,airandsoilenvironmentalindicators,suchasthenature,isthedevelopmentofgreenfoodandpreservingpensionidealplaces,forestcarbonsinksandotherindustries.Fromtheperspectiveofthepriorityofcharacteristicresources,wildblueberry,Northernforestresourcessuchasdrugs,bigsnow,bigwetlands,Riverandforesttourismresources,variety,largereservesofmineralresourcessuchasmolybdenum,leadandzinc,hastranslatedintostrongmaterialconditionsforeconomicadvantage.Economicdevelopmentoutofthewater,totalmorethan16billioncubicmetersofsurfacewaterresourcesandhydro-junctionprojectofdevelopmentprospects;recoverablereservesofhighqualitymineralwaterresourcesmilliontons,isthebaseofrarenaturalandpollution-freemineralwater.Seenfromtheadvantagesofculturalenrichment,withNorthernculture,andXianbeicultures,Oroqencultureandanumberofculturalresources,rockonlyfoundmorethan1000paintings,culturalindustrydevelopmenthasgreatpotential.Fromtheperspectiveofpolicyoverlapadvantage,withtheStateForestryAdministrationandtheprovincialgovernmenttwochannelsofpolicytowardsdirectenjoymentofnaturalforestprotectionprogram,Westerndevelopment,resource-basedcitiessustainabledevelopmentandmainfunctionregionconstructionnationalpolicyplanning.Aslongasweputtheseresourcestouseandexploittheadvantagesofgood,couldgiveguanghui,snow,coldregionandblackGlebeintogoldandsilver,willprovidestrongsupportforforestdevelopment.InadditiontoJiaShujimentionedadvantages,XXwehaveinagriculture,waterconservancyandotheruniqueresources.Agriculturalresources,1.129millionmuofarablelandthroughouttheCounty,dahingganLingwastheonlypredominantlyruraladministrativedistricts,greenplantingareaof850,000acres.Waterresources,inariverovermorethan180,manyriverhydropowerdevelopmentprojectconditions,richinthreefiveLuoand学前儿童卫生与保健作业1学前儿童一周食谱(根据各园的情况实际填写)学前儿童卫生与保健作业2一、名词解释1、等级评价法将个体儿童的发育数值和标准的均值及标准差相比较,以此来评价个体儿童发育状况的一种方法。2、骨龄根据儿童少年的骨骼发育程度同骨发育标准进行比较求得的发育年龄。3、暴怒发作当学前儿童个人的要求未能得到满足时,常出现大声哭闹、尖叫、自残等发泄怒气的过激行为。4、动力定型动力定型是指一种由固定程序的条件作用建立的暂时联系系统,即条件反射系统。它是巴甫洛夫学说中的一个概念。在这一种系统内各个条件刺激按严格的序列和时间呈现,即用一系列刺激的定型形式获得这种系统中的每个刺激的确切而不变的效果,最后的结果就是在大脑皮质的活动中建立的一种动力定型。5、镶嵌式活动学习时、大脑皮层只有相应部位的细胞处于兴奋状态,而其它部分则处于抑制转态,形成了兴奋区的抑制区,出现了镶嵌式活动方式。因此,教学中注意力劳动和脑力劳动轮换。6、一日生活制度幼儿进园必须做到十大环节(晨检、进班、体育活动、培养与训练、大小便、穿衣盥洗、进餐、午睡、游戏、离园)二、简答题1、学前儿童皮肤的特点皮肤的保护机能差;调节体温能力弱;吸收力和渗透力强。2.简述学前儿童眼睛特点和用眼卫生。特点5岁前有生理性远视;晶状体弹性大,调节能力强;对环境敏感。用眼卫生(1)要预防近视,创造支持性环境保护学前儿童视力,教育学前儿童养成良好的用眼习惯。(2)要预防眼部疾患。(3)定期给学前儿童测查视力,及时矫治。(4)要早发现眼部异常。发现特殊时,提醒家长及时到医院检查治疗。3.如何理解身体各系统的生长发育不平衡(1)神经系统率先发育。(2)淋巴系统前十年快速发育。(3)生殖系统在第二生长高峰期迅速发育。(4)其它各器官或系统呈波浪式发育。4、简述学前儿童心理健康的标准和心理健康教育的途径。标准智力发展正常;情绪健康,反应适度;乐于与人交往,人际关系和谐;心理活动和行为方式统一协调;有良好的性格特征。途径全面渗透学前儿童的一日生活。通过常规指导和训练、各个领域教学、各种突发事件对学前儿童进行健康教育。拓展并丰富各类活动。通过各种活动和游戏,实施心理健康教育。家园同步。家园达成共识,协调教育方法,统一教育要求,保证学前儿童心理健康教育的延续性和有效性。5.简述碳水化合物的食物来源,以及学前儿童对碳水化合物的需求特点。主要食物来源为谷类、薯类、根茎类食物。学前儿童碳水化合物摄取量应适量,过多会导致肥胖等。但如果摄取不足,会导致蛋白质消耗增加,体重减轻,导致营养不良。3-6岁儿童每日膳食中碳水化合物提供热量应占总高热量的50-55。6.分别简述钙、铁、锌和维生素A、维生素D的食物来源。钙的食物来源奶和奶制品含量丰富,小虾皮、还带、蔬菜、豆类等含钙也较丰富。铁的食物来源动物性食品,如肝脏、肉类、蛋类、鱼类,植物性食物,如黑木耳、绿色蔬菜等含量较高。锌的食物来源贝类食物、瘦肉、动物内脏、蛋、奶、鱼、坚果、豆类等。维生素A的食物来源动物性食品,如动物肝脏、鱼肝油、乳类、禽蛋等,以及黄红色蔬菜和水果。维生素D的食物来源鱼肝油、动物肝脏、禽蛋。7.简述学前儿童合理膳食的要求。膳食搭配合理,比例适当,营养均衡;提供充足的热量和优质蛋白质;食物的色香味形俱全且少糖、少盐、不腻;一日多餐,定时定量;科学合理地选择零食。8、如何为学前儿童如厕创设良好的物质和心理环境。2016learningimplementtotubemainleaderstopicseminarspiritcounsellingmaterial2016learningimplementtotubemainleaderstopicseminarspiritcounsellingmaterialMarch7,XIGeneralSecretarytoIprovincedelegationparticipateinconsideredandpublishedhasimportantspeech,onXXXprovincepeopleforChinarevolutionvictoryandSocialistconstructionmadeofcontributiongivehascertainly,onIprovincepastfiveyearsimplementationfocusstrategy,andgraspfocusindustry,economicsocialdevelopmentmadeofresultsgivehascertainly,ClarifiedthedemandsfordevelopmentofXXX,referringtobothdirections,tasksandissues,teachings,forthecurrentandfuturedevelopmentinHeilongjiangprovince,isofgreatpracticalsignificanceandfar-reachinghistoricalsignificance.March22to24th,provincialheldhasprovincetubemainleaderstopicseminar,provincialSecretaryWangXiankuicomradeinseminaropeningprovincedohasimportantspeech,WangXiankuistressedin-depthlearningacquisitionGeneralSecretaryofspeech,isonXXXapoliticalaccount,wemustputlearningimplementXIGeneralSecretaryimportantspeechspiritasmajorpoliticaltask,adaptedandledeconomicdevelopmentnewnormal,insistedtoeconomicconstructionforCenternotshake,implementimplementationnewdevelopmentconcept,weaknesses,andswaggergramsshort,andyangchangbuduan,Stimulatetheendogenousdynamics,ationeffectofEMU,firmimplementationofthefiveplanning,thedevelopmentofkeyindustries,openDragonRivercomprehensiverevitalizationnewjourney,strugglingtogetoutofahighquality,efficient,betterstructureanddevelopmentroadofrevitalizationoftheadvantagesintofullplay.March29to30th,theCommitteeorganizedapipemajorthematicseminarofleadingcadresprefecturalcomradeJiaYumeimadeanimportantspeechattheopeningceremony.JiaShujistressed,fulldistrictupperandlowermusttoeffectiveenhancedlearningpublicityimplementimplementationXIGeneralSecretaryimportantspeechspiritofpoliticalconsciously,andthoughtconsciously,andactionconsciouslyandmissionconsciously,putlearningXIGeneralSecretaryandprovincialSecretaryWangXiankuispeechspiritascurrentprimarypoliticaltask,tomorestronglyofattitude,andmorepowerfulofmeasures,andmorefullofdrivepromotedforesttransationdevelopment,struggledtooutofforesttransationdevelopmentnew,ensureasscheduledachievedfullbuiltforestsocietyoftarget.TodaytheCountyforconveningthisConference,istofullyimplementthearrangementsoftheprovincial,prefectural,andisamajorpoliticaltask.County-wideeachofthepartymembersandcadresmustearnestlystudy,deeplyunderstand,enterintotheheart,doneoutsidetheheart,ofthelinearmedwithJia,Secretaryofspiritandmind,practice,work,below,IXXpracticalstudyJiaShujisimportantspeechspiritwithyou.Awareness,deepentheCounty,GeneralSecretaryfurtherclarifythetransationaldevelopment,XIJinpingstressedthatXXXhasitsadvantages,alsohavetheirownboards,keytofocusonweaknesses,shortswaggergrams,yangchangbuduan,integratedeffectofpolicymeasurestowardsthetargetsolidforward.Thisimportantstatementforustodoagoodjobprovidingadialecticalthinkingandthescientific,fullyembodiesthedialecticalunityofsubjectiveandobjectivelaw.Wemustspeaktothespiritforguidance,andfurtherdeepenunderstanding,targetedtolongYangwell,Hawksheltersmakegoodshort,releasedinfulldevelopmentpotential.一...PotentialandthebigfiveshortBoard,thatis,ecologicalenvironment,resources,water,economicdevelopmentadvantageadvantage,advantageaspolicyoverlap,culturalenrichment,andindustrialboards,institutionalweakness,shortpeopleshort,shortoffundsandtalent.Fromtheperspectiveofecologicalenvironment,ourregionasanimportantguaranteeofnationalecologicalsafety,highforestcover,water,airandsoilenvironmentalindicators,suchasthenature,isthedevelopmentofgreenfoodandpreservingpensionidealplaces,forestcarbonsinksandotherindustries.Fromtheperspectiveofthepriorityofcharacteristicresources,wildblueberry,Northernforestresourcessuchasdrugs,bigsnow,bigwetlands,Riverandforesttourismresources,variety,largereservesofmineralresourcessuchasmolybdenum,leadandzinc,hastranslatedintostrongmaterialconditionsforeconomicadvantage.Economicdevelopmentoutofthewater,totalmorethan16billioncubicmetersofsurfacewaterresourcesandhydro-junctionprojectofdevelopmentprospects;recoverablereservesofhighqualitymineralwaterresourcesmilliontons,isthebaseofrarenaturalandpollution-freemineralwater.Seenfromtheadvantagesofculturalenrichment,withNorthernculture,andXianbeicultures,Oroqencultureandanumberofculturalresources,rockonlyfoundmorethan1000paintings,culturalindustrydevelopmenthasgreatpotential.Fromtheperspectiveofpolicyoverlapadvantage,withtheStateForestryAdministrationandtheprovincialgovernmenttwochannelsofpolicytowardsdirectenjoymentofnaturalforestprotectionprogram,Westerndevelopment,resource-basedcitiessustainabledevelopmentandmainfunctionregionconstructionnationalpolicyplanning.Aslongasweputtheseresourcestouseandexploittheadvantagesofgood,couldgiveguanghui,snow,coldregionandblackGlebeintogoldandsilver,willprovidestrongsupportforforestdevelopment.InadditiontoJiaShujimentionedadvantages,XXwehaveinagriculture,waterconservancyandotheruniqueresources.Agriculturalresources,1.129millionmuofarablelandthroughouttheCounty,dahingganLingwastheonlypredominantlyruraladministrativedistricts,greenplantingareaof850,000acres.Waterresources,inariverovermorethan180,manyriverhydropowerdevelopmentprojectconditions,richinthreefiveLuoand保证厕所干净、清洁、无异味,营造“家”的感觉。厕所设置安全、美观,便池尺寸适合学前儿童使用,有扶手,有间隔,地板不滑,裁好的手纸放置盒内,便于取放。户外活动场所也应有方便学前儿童随时大小便的设备。教师提醒幼儿大小便时,说话口气要亲切、柔和,不强制幼儿大小便,允许幼儿根据需要随时大小便,并在每个活动的过渡环节予以提醒。对待个别大便困难或不会蹲厕所的学前儿童,可设置一些痰盂,教师适当陪伴,消除其紧张心理,使其逐步学会自己蹲厕所大小便。9、简述学前儿童体育锻炼的卫生原则。经常锻炼;全面锻炼;循序渐进;注意个体差异;注意准备活动和整理活动的组织;注意运动与休息的交替。10、简述学前儿童基本动作练习的注意事项。学前儿童基本动作练习的核心任务是发展儿童力量、速度、耐力、平衡性、协调性和灵敏度等身体素质。在基本动作练习中,要重视柔韧性和协调性的素质练习;力量、速度、耐力的练习比重要相对减少。三、论述题1、学前儿童呼吸系统有什么特点如何做好学前儿童呼吸系统的卫生保健工作答学前儿童呼吸系统的特点是(1)鼻腔狭窄易阻塞,一旦感染会波及其它。鼻腔感染会引起鼻黏膜充血、肿胀。分泌物增多,造成鼻腔阻塞,呼吸困难。(2)喉腔狭窄,易致呼吸困难。喉腔一旦感染,会因黏膜肿胀而影响到呼吸。(3)声带不够坚韧。学前儿童声带不够坚韧,易充血、肿胀变厚,造成声音嘶哑。(4)气管易感染。学前儿童的气管、支气管管腔狭小,管壁柔软,缺乏弹性组织,分泌黏液少,纤毛运动能力差,因而非常容易感染。(5)肺泡数量少、容量小。学前儿童肺的弹力组织发育较差,间质发育旺盛,血管丰富。(6)呼吸肌不发达,呼吸时胸廓运动差;呼吸浅而快肺活量比成人小,耗氧量与成人差不多。学前儿童呼吸系统卫生保健(1)戒除用口呼吸,使之养成用鼻呼吸的好习惯。用口呼吸是一种不良习惯。首先,它使尘粒、细菌等可不经过呼吸系统的第一道屏障而长驱直入,久之会造成呼吸系统和消化系统的疾病。其次,用口呼吸导致呼吸浅,肺部扩张不全,影响胸廓发育,形成漏斗胸。再次,用户口呼吸使睡眠不安稳,影响精力和体力恢复。最后,用口呼吸会在吃饭时忙着喘气,造成“囫囵吞枣”,导致消化不良。(2)禁止用手挖鼻。用手挖鼻孔是一种坏习惯,它能使鼻毛脱落,黏膜损伤,血管破裂引起出血。还会导致鼻腔感染,严重者细菌可经面部血管回流颅脑内,引起危险的并发症。除此之外,长期用手挖鼻孔,可使鼻孔变大,形成“朝天鼻”。(3)正确地擤鼻涕。正确的方法是用手轻轻捂住一侧鼻孔,将另一侧的鼻涕擤出,然后用同样的方法擤另一侧。擤鼻涕不要太用力,如果擤时太吃力,可先点一些黄麻素药水。(4)遮挡着打喷嚏。打喷嚏的正确做法是用手帕或纸巾轻遮口鼻打喷嚏,如果一时找不到遮挡物,也可用手代替,之后立即洗手。千万不能向别人打喷嚏,也不能憋喷嚏。(5)保护声带。要鼓励学前儿童用自然、优美的声音唱歌、说话,避免扯着嗓子喊叫。学前儿童唱歌的场所要空气清新,避免尘土飞扬,温度、湿度要合适。得了伤风感冒要少说话、多喝水。避免学前儿童在温度骤变的情况下练习发声。(6)严防呼吸道异物。培养学前儿童安静进餐的习惯,不能边吃饭边说笑,更不能在吃饭时打闹。教育学前儿童不要边玩边吃小食品。不能让学前儿童玩玻璃球、纽扣、豆子等小物件,以免他们把这些小物件放入鼻孔。(7)多在空气新鲜处进行活动、锻炼。清新的空气能使学前儿童精神饱满、心情愉快,乐于活动和锻炼。经常锻炼还可促进学前儿童肺和胸廓的发育,使其肺活量加大,呼吸由浅而快逐渐变为深和慢。2.学前儿童神经系统有何特点如何做好学前儿童神经系统的卫生保健工作答学前儿童神经系统的特点是(1)快速发育。胎儿时期,脑是优先发育的。在胎儿26个月及出生后的第一年是脑细胞数量增长的重要阶段。6个月时脑的重量约为成人脑重的50,1岁时时脑的重量约为成人脑重的60,46岁时脑的重量约为成人脑重的8590(2)脑的可塑性强。在脑的发育过程中,良好的教育能使学前儿童大脑的发育达到最佳水平。(3)需氧量大。在清醒安静的状态下,学前儿童脑的耗氧量大约为全身耗氧量的50,而成人约为20。2016learningimplementtotubemainleaderstopicseminarspiritcounsellingmaterial2016learningimplementtotubemainleaderstopicseminarspiritcounsellingmaterialMarch7,XIGeneralSecretarytoIprovincedelegationparticipateinconsideredandpublishedhasimportantspeech,onXXXprovincepeopleforChinarevolutionvictoryandSocialistconstructionmadeofcontributiongivehascertainly,onIprovincepastfiveyearsimplementationfocusstrategy,andgraspfocusindustry,economicsocialdevelopmentmadeofresultsgivehascertainly,ClarifiedthedemandsfordevelopmentofXXX,referringtobothdirections,tasksandissues,teachings,forthecurrentandfuturedevelopmentinHeilongjiangprovince,isofgreatpracticalsignificanceandfar-reachinghistoricalsignificance.March22to24th,provincialheldhasprovincetubemainleaderstopicseminar,provincialSecretaryWangXiankuicomradeinseminaropeningprovincedohasimportantspeech,WangXiankuistressedin-depthlearningacquisitionGeneralSecretaryofspeech,isonXXXapoliticalaccount,wemustputlearningimplementXIGeneralSecretaryimportantspeechspiritasmajorpoliticaltask,adaptedandledeconomicdevelopmentnewnormal,insistedtoeconomicconstructionforCenternotshake,implementimplementationnewdevelopmentconcept,weaknesses,andswaggergramsshort,andyangchangbuduan,Stimulatetheendogenousdynamics,ationeffectofEMU,firmimplementationofthefiveplanning,thedevelopmentofkeyindustries,openDragonRivercomprehensiverevitalizationnewjourney,strugglingtogetoutofahighquality,efficient,betterstructureanddevelopmentroadofrevitalizationoftheadvantagesintofullplay.March29to30th,theCommitteeorganizedapipemajorthematicseminarofleadingcadresprefecturalcomradeJiaYumeimadeanimportantspeechattheopeningceremony.JiaShujistressed,fulldistrictupperandlowermusttoeffectiveenhancedlearningpublicityimplementimplementationXIGeneralSecretaryimportantspeechspiritofpoliticalconsciously,andthoughtconsciously,andactionconsciouslyandmissionconsciously,putlearningXIGeneralSecretaryandprovincialSecretaryWangXiankuispeechspiritascurrentprimarypoliticaltask,tomorestronglyofattitude,andmorepowerfulofmeasures,andmorefullofdrivepromotedforesttransationdevelopment,struggledtooutofforesttransationdevelopmentnew,ensureasscheduledachievedfullbuiltforestsocietyoftarget.TodaytheCountyforconveningthisConference,istofullyimplementthearrangementsoftheprovincial,prefectural,andisamajorpoliticaltask.County-wideeachofthepartymembersandcadresmustearnestlystudy,deeplyunderstand,enterintotheheart,doneoutsidetheheart,ofthelinearmedwithJia,Secretaryofspiritandmind,practice,work,below,IXXpracticalstudyJiaShujisimportantspeechspiritwithyou.Awareness,deepentheCounty,GeneralSecretaryfurtherclarifythetransationaldevelopment,XIJinpingstressedthatXXXhasitsadvantages,alsohavetheirownboards,keytofocusonweaknesses,shortswaggergrams,yangchangbuduan,integratedeffectofpolicymeasurestowardsthetargetsolidforward.Thisimportantstatementforustodoagoodjobprovidingadialecticalthinkingandthescientific,fullyembodiesthedialecticalunityofsubjectiveandobjectivelaw.Wemustspeaktothespiritforguidance,andfurtherdeepenunderstanding,targetedtolongYangwell,Hawksheltersmakegoodshort,releasedinfulldevelopmentpotential.一...PotentialandthebigfiveshortBoard,thatis,ecologicalenvironment,resources,water,economicdevelopmentadvantageadvantage,advantageaspolicyoverlap,culturalenrichment,andindustrialboards,institutionalweakness,shortpeopleshort,shortoffundsandtalent.Fromtheperspectiveofecologicalenvironment,ourregionasanimportantguaranteeofnationalecologicalsafety,highforestcover,water,airandsoilenvironmentalindicators,suchasthenature,isthedevelopmentofgreenfoodandpreservingpensionidealplaces,forestcarbonsinksandotherindustries.Fromtheperspectiveofthepriorityofcharacteristicresources,wildblueberry,Northernforestresourcessuchasdrugs,bigsnow,bigwetlands,Riverandforesttourismresources,variety,largereservesofmineralresourcessuchasmolybdenum,leadandzinc,hastranslatedintostrongmat

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